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  • ASTRONOMERS HAVE DISCOVERED THERE IS A VAST WALL ACROSS THE SOUTHERN BORDER OF OUR MILKY WAY.  
  • This South Pole Wall consists of thousands of galaxies, trillions of stars and dark worlds, along with gas and dust.
  • It’s a galaxy filament, a huge formation of galaxies that forms a border between the empty spaces of cosmic voids that together form the cosmic web.
  • This curtain arcs across 700 million light years of space.  This wall sits behind our Milky Way.  This wall is close to home, other walls are far away.
  • The South Pole Wall is just half a billion light-years away. In fact, this is part of the reason it was so hard to find until now—it is situated right behind the Milky Way galaxy, in a place called the Zone of Galactic Obscuration, where the galaxy’s brightness effectively kept the wall shrouded in plain sight.
  • This discovery can also help us understand the evolution of our local corner of space, which includes Laniakea, the supercluster of galaxies to which the Milky Way belongs.
  • The galaxies in the wall can’t be seen, but their gravitational effects can be measured.
  •  Galaxies aren’t just strewn randomly throughout the universe. Along huge strands of hydrogen, galaxies collect into larger groupings of massive filaments, separated by giant voids of nearly empty space. Each filament is basically a wall of galaxies, stretching for hundreds of millions of light-years. They’re the biggest structures in the known universe. Other identified structures include the Great Wall, the Sloan Great Wall, the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall, and the Bootes Void.
  • The HerculesCorona Borealis Great Wall or the Great GRB Wall is the largest known structure in the observable universe, measuring approximately 10 billion light years in length (for perspective, the observable universe is about 93 billion light years in diameter).
  • The largest known structure in the Universe is called the ‘Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall’, discovered in November 2013. This object is a galactic filament, a vast group of galaxies bound together by gravity, about 10 billion light-years away.
  • The largest known wall in the observable universe is about 93 billion light years in diameter. THE GREAT GRB WALL:
    What is the largest object in the Universe?
    This cluster of galaxies appears to be about 10 billion light-years across; more than double the previous record holder! Astronomers were able to determine the size of the structure by mapping gamma-ray bursts (pictured) from this group of galaxies.
  • A computer model of the South Pole Wall, with denser areas of matter displayed in red. The entire region shown spans about 1.3 billion light-years; our Milky Way galaxy, barely 100,000 light-years across, is located in the center of the image, where the red and blue arrows originate
  • A contiguous filament of light 1.4 billion light-years long, packed into a cloud maybe 600 million light years in radius.  The motion arises from the lumpy distribution of matter that grew out of tiny ripples in the density of the early universe.Every hill and valley in the density distribution makes itself felt.
  • The cosmos contains about five times as much invisible dark matter as it does luminous atomic matter.   Dark Matter provides the gravitational  scaffolding for the luminous structures in the universe:  Galaxies, clusters, and superclusters.
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  • STAR STUFF:
  • There are no stars over 500 times the size of our own sun.  At that point, the star’s nuclear furnace can’t overcome gravity, so the outer layers get blown away.
  • Stars consume their own ammunition.  The battle ends with the death of the star.  When the red giant phase sets in, the death march begins.  Each stage gets shorter.  No more fighting back, the core collapses, and the white dwarf emerges.
  • Electron degenerative forces cause an ultra dense matter.  The core keeps collapsing until a neutron star comes into being.  100 million times denser, rotating 1,000 times a second.  Then, a pulsar is born.
  •   Now, gravity is too strong for anything else.  Gravity wins, so a black hole    is born.  Gravity now reins supreme.
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