• AN ELECTRIC FIELD IS DEFINED AS THE ELECTRIC FORCE PER UNIT CHARGE.  THE ELECTRIC FIELD IS RADIALLY OUTWARD FROM A POSITIVE CHARGE AND RADIALLY IN TOWARD A NEGATIVE POINT CHARGE.
  •   Earth’s gravity field extends throughout space, but it responds locally.  It is the same for electric charges.  The  positive charge creates the field, the negative charge responds to it.  A proton with a positive charge creates the electric field, a negatively charged electron responds to it.
  • Positive and negative   attract, acting on something distant.  Why?  Because objects are on a field.  The earth’s gravity field pulls on the moon,
  • Light, X-rays, radio waves, microwaves, etc. contains electric field components in it.  There is an external electric field in a current carrying conductor.  Electric fields are generated by charges and charge configurations such as capacitors.  The electric field lines flow from positive to negative charges.  Such sources are well suited for surface applications.
  • Glowing objects, electrons, atoms, and  light.  Energy increases as
  • wavelengths  get shorter.
  • The ultraviolet catastrophe:  The math calls for energy  rising continuously as the wavelengths get shorter. Observation, however showed that energy peaks at a temperature dependant wavelength, before it reaches the ultraviolet level.
  • In 1900, Max Planck’s math proved that the radiance should depend on temperature.  The constant in his formula was his proof. It reduced the wavelengths to zero. Observations were now in sync.  It was another constant in nature. Gravity has a constant.
  • The formula implies that the atomic energy and molecular vibrations (which causes objects to glow), are the result of random motions of atoms and molecules in a solid, gas, or liquid. We know from electromagnetics, that the electric charge is accelerated,
  •  as the energy radiates away.
  • Gauss’s law: The number of field lines emerging from any closed surface depends on the enclosed charge.  An electrical conductor is a conductor in which material charges are free to move.  E.G.:  Metals, ionic solutions, plasmas, semiconductors, and superconductors.  .
  • Electric fields exert forces and charges in electrostatic equilibrium.  They are charges that aren’t moving.  In equilibrium, any excess charge must lie on the surface of the conductor.
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