Protons, neutrons, and electrons start with equal mass numbers. As the Universe cooled down, the ratios changed. All things are triune with binary interactives; the Universe has a neutral charge. Neutrons get locked into atoms that don’t decay. The number of protons and electrons remains virtually identical. (positrons and neutrons change the ratio slightly.) Roughly speaking, there are now around 7-8 protons for every neutron because processes change over time.
At first, only clouds of gas existed. Under pressure, large hot gas balls formed. Hydrogen and Helium molecules were smashed together. Nuclear Fusion started. Nuclear Fusion is a process that combines nuclei to release energy. When the core hits 10,000,000 degrees, Kelvin, it explodes. Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes called stellar nurseries, collapse, and form stars. Nuclear Fusion reactions power all of the stars until they die. The material in a white dwarf no longer undergoes fusion reactions because it ran out of energy. When a massive star’s core collapses, it explodes. The explosion spews out the lighter elements. During a supernova, the star releases enormous amounts of energy and neutrons, which allows elements heavier than iron, such as uranium and gold, to be produced. In the supernova explosion, all of these elements are expelled.
A Mars-sized body collided with Earth approximately 4.5 billion years ago, and the resulting debris from Earth and the impact accumulated to form our natural satellite. When the Moon was new, it was orbiting about 1,500,000 miles away, as opposed to the current average distance of 238,000. The newly formed Moon was in a molten state.
Unlike ordinary matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. Researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter. You can not see or feel dark matter.
Dark matter is distributed around galaxies and clusters of galaxies in a spherical halo. In the Milky Way, the dark halo extends to at least 300,000 light years. The formation of dark matter halos played a significant role in the early formation of galaxies. During initial galactic formation, the baryonic matter’s temperature was too high to form gravitationally self-bound objects. Other gravitational interactions were needed.
Every second of your existence, dark matter passes through your body.
Dark energy is the counterpart to gravity. It is an anti-gravity force providing a negative pressure that fills the Universe and stretches the fabric of spacetime. Dark energy increasingly drives cosmic objects apart rather than drawing them together as gravity does. Dark energy is caused by energy inherent to the fabric of space itself, and as the Universe expands, the energy density remains constant. As a result, a Universe filled with dark energy will see its expansion rate remain stable rather than drop at all. Because of dark energy, distant galaxies are already speeding up in their recession away from us.
The vacuum energy of space has particles popping in and out of existence. Objects that are gravitationally bound don’t experience the effects of dark energy. Dark energy affects only the largest scales of the Universe. Nothing can travel through space faster than the speed of light in a vacuum, 186,282 miles per second. Dark energy demonstrates that such speed limits do not bind the fabric of space.
Dark energy pushes things apart on a large scale; dark matter holds galaxies together on a smaller scale. Gravity dominated matter at the start. This allowed stars, galaxies, and galactic clusters to take shape. Then between an estimated 3 to 7 billion years ago, dark energy took over from gravity, and the Universe started rapidly expanding again. Gravity on the macroscale has been overcome. The Universe has evolved.
Dark energy eventually dominates the Universe’s gravity, electromagnetism, and strong and weak nuclear forces. This causes everything to be broken.
The next Big Bang happens down the road from everything’s broken.