 • • Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is the theory of the interaction of quantized electromagnetic fields. It turns out that the interaction of two electromagnetic fields involves the exchange of photons.
• QED is an essential scientific theory that accounts for all observed physical phenomena except those associated with general relativity theory and radioactive decay. QED is compatible with particular relativity theory, and special relativity equations are as well. Quantum electrodynamics (QED), a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics, is among the most stringently tested theories in physics. • The standard model puts the field theories QED and QCD under one umbrella. QED determines each particle’s spin. Electrons of the same spin cancel each other out; the one unpaired electron in the atom will determine the spin. There is a high likelihood of either spin because of the large number of electrons, so when it goes through the magnetic field, it splits into two beams. • Quantum mechanics is science’s most precise, influential theory of reality. Quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum field theory of the interactions of charged particles with the electromagnetic field. Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is the theory of the interaction of quantized electromagnetic fields. It turns out that the interaction of two electromagnetic fields involves the exchange of photons. Quantum field theory, a branch of physics born from applying the rules of quantum mechanics to the electromagnetic field, sees a particle — the photon —as a “quantized” excitation of the field. He was instrumental in propelling quantum field theory to astonishing new heights in the description of nature.
• • The Spin Quantum Number (ms) describes the angular momentum of an electron. An electron spins around an axis and has both angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. Each orbital can only hold two electrons, and one electron will have a +1/2 spin, and the other will have a -1/2 spin. The practical value of QED theory is that it allows physicists to calculate the absorption and emission of light by atoms. Quantum physics applies the rules of quantum mechanics to the electromagnetic field, and this field sees a particle, the photon, as a quantized excitation of the field.
• • The Higgs mechanism generates masses for elementary particles such as the electron and the W and Z particles (which mediate weak, short-range interactions) while leaving the long-range photon massless. The Higgs boson is the fundamental particle associated with the Higgs field, which gives mass to other fundamental particles such as electrons and quarks. A particle’s mass determines how much it resists changing its speed or position when encountering a force. Not all fundamental particles have mass.
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